A networking consist of two or more nodes(e.g. computers) that are linked in-order to share resources (such as printer and CDS), exchange files or allow electronic communication. The computers on a network may be linked through cables telephone lines, radio waves, satellites or infrared light beams.
Goals of Networking
The main goal of networking is “Resource sharing”, and it is to make all programs, data and equipment available to anyone on the network without the regard to the physical location of the resource and the user.
A second goal is to provide high reliability by having alternative source of supply. For in all files could be replicated on two or three machines, the other copies could be available.
Another goal is saving money. Small computers have a much better price/performance ratio than larger ones. Mainframes are roughly a factor of ten times faster than the fastest single chip microprocessor, but they cost thousand time more. This imbalance has caused many system designer to build system consisting of powerful personal computers one per user, with data kept on one or more shared files server machines. This goal leads to network with many computers located in the same building. Such a networking is called a LAN(Local Area Network).
Another closely related goal is to increase the system performance as the work load increases by just adding more processors with central mainframes.
Computer networks provide a powerful communication medium. A file that was updated/modified on a network can be seen by the other users on the network immediately.
Applications of Networking
Some of the network applications in different fields are following:
- Marketing and sales.
- Financial services.
- Manufacturing CAD, CAM etc.
- Information services.
- Cellular telephones.
- Cable television.
- E-Mail etc.
Network Architecture is the design of a computer network. Network architecture refers to how computers are organized in a system and how task are allocated between there computers.
Two of most widely used types of network architecture are:
- Peer-to-Peer network.
- Client Server or Tiered network.
In a Peer-to-Peer networking tasks are allocated among all the numbers of the network. There is no real hierarchy among the computers and all of them are considered equal.
- The ‘Peers’ are computer systems which are connected to each other.
- Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of any central server.
- In other words, each computer on a P2P networking becomes a file server as well as client.
- once connected to the network, P2P software allows you to search for files on other computers.
- Software for Peer-to-Peer networking is included with most modern desktop operating systems such as Windows and Moc OS.
- Peer-to-Peer networking are more common in small offices or within a single department of a larger organization.
This is also referred to as a distributed architecture or a work group without hierarchy. A Peer-to-Peer does not use a control computer server that controls network activity instead every computer on the network has a special software running that allows for communication between all the computers.
2.Client/Server or Tiered Networking
In a client/server networking, a number of network clients or workstations request resources or services from the network. One or more networks servers manage and provide these resources or services. The clients are computers that depend on the server for data and software. Network server are referred as computer server.
Some times a server is described in terms of the specific service it provides as e-mail server, print server or storage server.
- There are a number of categories of servers, including print server, file server, networking server, and database server.
- In theory, wherever computers share resources with client machines they are considered as a server.
- The server waits for a request to arrive from clients and then respond to them.
- The server is located elsewhere on the network usually on more powerful machines.
- Client computers provide an interface to allow a computer user to request services o the server and to display the results the server return.
- Clients are often situated at workstations or on personal computers. A client can be a simple application or a whole system that accesses services being provided by a server.
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